Wave mixing – Media supporting different types of waves and their sources can coherently convert energy between sound and other physical and biological waves. For example, unexpected biological morphogenesis responses of tissues to vibrations have arisen by extending the science of sound to biological media, and may inspire revolutionary new therapeutic technologies that accelerate bone fracture or soft tissue lesion repair processes, or treatment of neurological disorders. NewFoS research is realizing dynamically tunable systems by understanding and controlling interactions between sound waves and other types of waves—physical or biological. Control of interacting wave functions will lead to new sources of coherent electronic-electromagnetic waves or intercellular resonant biological signals.

In the well-established field of optomechanics a radiation pressure force couples light and mechanical motion [1]. Recently, it has been recognized as possible to tame interactions between a wider variety of different types of waves through the nonlinear interaction-driven complexity of their supporting media [2,3]. In our laboratories, linear and nonlinear resonances between elastic waves and spin waves in ferromagnetic media have been shown to depend on the transverse and longitudinal polarization of the elastic wave [4]. This interaction can be tuned by applying an external magnetic field. The electron–phonon interaction in graphene leads to distinct phenomena from those in a typical 2-D electron gas such as unconventional mixing of plasmon and optical phonon polarizations [5]. Sound propagating in a biological tissue may interact with an intercellular signal such as a Ca2+ wave [6-9]. Recently, our researchers have shown these interactions may impart the Ca2+ wave with non-conventional characteristics in the forms of unidirectional propagation and topological immunity to environmental cues [10]. We expect this new phenomenon to be polarization dependent as sound wave shear and tensile forces have different mechano-transduced effects on cells [12,13].

Wave mixing: Fluorescence microscopy (A) of engineered networks of endothelial cells (B) enable imaging in space and time of symmetrical mechano-transducted nonlinear intercellular Ca2+ waves. Snapshot of a simulation shows nonlinear Ca2+ waves in a chain of cells propagating symmetrically from a stimulated cell (*) (C)-top. Acoustic wave interacting with the Ca2+ waves breaks reciprocity in the direction of propagation (C)-bottom.

  1. M. Aspelmeyer, T.J. Kippenberg and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391 (2014).
  2. R. Lucklum, M. Zubtsov and A. Oseev, “phoxonic crystals – a new platform for chemical and biochemical sensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405, 6497 (2013)
  3. J. Klos, M. Krawczyk, Y.S. Dadoenkova, N.N. Dadoenkova and I.L. Lyubchanskii, “Spin waves and electromagnetic waves in photonic-magnonic crystals,” IEEE Transactions in Magnetics 50, 2504404 (2014).
  4. P.A. Deymier, J.O. Vasseur, K. Runge, A. Manchon and O. Bou-Matar, “Phonon-magnon resonant processes with relevance to acoustic spin pumping,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 224421 (2014).
  5. M. Jablan, M. Soljacic and H. Buljan, “Unconventional plasmon-phonon coupling in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 161409 (2011).
  6. J. Parvizi, V. Parpura, J.F. Greenleaf and M.E. Bolander, “Calcium signaling is required for ultrasound-stimulated aggrecan synthesis by rat chondrocytes,” J. Orthopaedic Res. 20, 51 (2002).
  7. M.A. Dinno, M. Dyson, S.R. Young, A.J. Mortimer, J. Hart and L.A. Crum, “The significance of membrane changes in the safe and effective use of therapeutic and diagnostic ultrasound,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1543 (1989).
  8. K. Sena, S.R. Angle, A. Kanaji, C. Aher, D.G. Karwo, D.R. Sumner and A.S. Virdi, “Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and cell-to-cell communication in bone marrow stromal cells,” Ultrasonics 51, 639 (2011).
  9. A. Salameh and S. Dhein, “Effects of mechanical forces and stretch on intercellular gap junction coupling,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes 1828, 147 (2013).
  10. P.A. Deymier, N. Swinteck, K. Runge and A. Deymier-Black, “Sound puts a new twist on intercellular signaling: non-conventional topology of calcium waves under acoustic irradiation,” submitted to Phys. Rev. E.
  11. D. Lu and G.S. Kassab, “Role of shear stress and stretch in vascular mechanobiology,” J. Roy. Soc. Interface 8, 1379 (2011).